# A Posteriori

## Attempts to grapple with and elucidate empirical knowledge

### Relativity and the Electromagnetic fieldOctober 24, 2009

Filed under: General Physics — Rāhul @ 10:50
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This week, I shall continue on the theme of the magnetic field and using a thought experiment prove the complete  interdependence of the electric and magnetic field, which we’ll see to be two ways of looking at the same thing. I first came across this fascinating line of reasoning in the pages of the second volume of the Feynman lectures on Physics, within which I have sought the most revealing wisdom on nature since my undergraduate days.

Consider a wire carrying current I and a charge at a distance l from it. The current will produce a magnetic field around the wire in the right-hand direction. The charge q is in the presence of the magnetic field, as shown in Fig: 1 below.

Fig: 1 Wire at rest, Charge moving down

Let us consider now that q is moving in a downward direction (note that current is in the upward direction) at a velocity equal to the drift velocity of electrons in the wire carrying current. Now, we shall analyse the forces on the system from two different inertial frames of reference and consider whether the observable results are the same, a requirement that is critical if we are to have any confidence in our methods of analyses. If our physical theory predicts different realities for observers in different inertial frames of reference, that would be a significant shortcoming indeed in the theory.

The first frame of reference is the one in which the wire is at rest. The current I is moving upwards and hence the drift electrons are moving downwards, say with a velocity v. The charge outside the wire, in its magnetic field is also moving down with the same velocity v. Since the wire is neutral, there is no electric force between it and the charge. But, since the charge moves in a magnetic field with a component of its velocity perpendicular to the field, there is a magnetic force on the charge. In this case, using the left hand rule, the force is towards the right if q is a positive charge and towards the left if q is negative. Assuming a positive q, observers in this frame of reference see the charge repelled from the wire. So, its velocity which was initially downwards, would now diverge away from the wire.

Let us now consider another frame of reference, this one moving at the same velocity as the charge and the drift electrons in the wire, as shown in Fig: 2 below.

Fig: 2 Wire moving up, Charge at rest

This would be like imagining the observer in a vessel moving downwards parallel to the motion of the external charge and the wire. In this frame of reference, the drift electrons are at rest and so there is no current in the wire. Hence, there is no magnetic field around the wire and no magnetic force on the charge. Does this mean the charge is at rest in this frame of reference? If so, in the previous frame, the charge should be seen as moving down at a constant velocity v. But, we had seen that the charge diverges away from the wire as it moves down. Since the observations in the two inertial frames have to agree with each other, there has to be something wrong with our reasoning in at least one frame.

In the second frame, since the charge is not moving, there is no magnetic force on it.  Maybe there is another force equivalent to the magnetic force in the first frame that will produce the same effect? One difference between the frames that we have ignored till now is that the wire is moving upward in the second frame and the electrons are at rest, while in the first frame, the wire is at rest and the electrons are moving down. When there is no current through the wire, the electrons and rest of the wire are at rest in the same frame and the charges balance each other. When there is a current and the electrons move downwards and wire is at rest, as in the first frame, according to special relativity, the charge of the electrons is unaffected by the velocity. But, the volume they occupy shrinks because the length of this space along the direction of the velocity shrinks according to the famous Lorentz transformation. Hence the charge density of electrons as seen in the first frame is higher than that in the second frame. By using a similar argument, we can see that the charge density of the positive charges in the wire is higher by the same amount, but in the second frame. So, we see that the second frame sees the wire as charged more positively than the first frame. In the first frame, we know that the wire is neutral. Otherwise, a wire will spontaneously attract or repel charges in its neighbourhood when the current through it is switched on. We see enough current carrying wires in common life to know this is not true. Hence, in the second frame, the wire is positively charged. As the charge q is also positive, it will be repelled from the wire. So, when we take the electric force also into consideration, the charge in the second frame repels from the wire, which when combined with the relative velocity of the second frame downwards with respect to the first, agrees with the observation in the first frame that the charge moved downwards in a divergent manner from the wire.

Similar observations in terms of velocity is arrived at  in both the frames of reference when we consider the effects of the electric and magnetic fields together. This adds to our understanding that they are but two facets of the general electromagnetic field. In different inertial frames, the electromagnetic field splits into different portions of electric and magneric fields and hence forces due to them. In our example, by choosing extremes of frames in which either the wire or the electrons were at rest, we could split the field into just the electric or just the magnetic field. But, many times it is a combination of both. By sacrificing a mathematical treatment of the problem, we have missed out on much elegance for the sake of simplicity. We also don’t know whether the velocities of the electron as seen in both the frames will agree in magnitude as well as in direction. They actually do, and they do this by having forces different in each frame in such a way as to have the velocities the same! I shall explore a mathematical treatment of the problem, again derived from Feynman’s lectures (Section 13-6), in a later post.

### Why the left hand rule?October 11, 2009

Filed under: General Physics — Rāhul @ 22:57
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Today’s post is about the magnetic field and what it really means in the context of the force felt by a charge moving through it. From high school physics, we know that a moving charge (0r current) in a magnetic field feels a certain force on it which is perpendicular both to the direction of motion and the direction of the magnetic field. To find out the direction of this force, we can either follow through with the vector cross product of the current and the magnetic field or use one of the many hand tricks like the left hand rule below.

Fig: 1 Left hand rule

The first question that comes to my mind really is, what is magnetic field? A moving charge as well as the effects of force in motion are both observables. But, how do we observe the magnetic field? If we don’t, how do we know it is there? The magnetic field, like other fields, is a creation of science, not nature. We use it to help explain observables like current and acceleration.

Let’s assume there are magnets as shown in Fig:1, between which is a conductor carrying current in the direction shown. Then, we observe a force on the conductor in the upward direction. We observe that when the magnets are removed from the picture, there is no longer a force on the conductor. Also, when one of the magnets is flipped so that they are repelling, there is no force on the conductor. But, when both the magnets are flipped so that they attract again, we see that the force on the conductor is now of the same intensity as the first case, but downwards. If we are to define two poles for a magnet- north and south and imaginary lines emanating from the north pole and sinking into the south pole, we see that there are such lines crossing the conductor only when there is a north pole and a south pole on either side of it and this, we might hypothesise, encapsulates the effect of the magnet on the conductor. So, the idea of the magnetic field (it it works) replaces the whole structure of the magnets with one space and time variant vector, as far as the current carrying conductor is concerned.

As myriad experiments prove the utility of the magnetic field idea and validates our left hand rule, we still don’t know if this is the best method to reduce the effects of the magnets. We see that this definition of magnetic field is perpendicular both to the current and the direction of force, the two directions where there are observable effects. Why not define the magnetic field in the direction of the force like the electric field or gravitational field is? To explore why, let us use the method of contradictions. Assuming the direction of magnetic field is defined along the force on the conductor, we see that the current is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the force which lie along the same axis. If the current is now flipped, the force, according to the previous rule will still be along the same direction as it remains perpendicular to current and parallel to the magnetic field. But, we observe that when the direction of current is flipped, so is the direction of the force on the conductor. So, we cannot define magnetic field in the direction of the force. We can also rule out defining it in the direction of the current because then, we do not have any easy way to judge the direction of force, apart from restricting it to a plane perpendicular to the current and field. But, if we do choose a direction orthogonal to both the current and force, we see that simple rules like the left hand rule can be developed to find one observable from the other in a way that agrees with experiment.

While all fields are human creations, I have always found the idea of the magnetic field the most artificial. I don’t have any rational arguments for this feeling, but it has to do with how it is defined in a direction which is apart from either of the observable vectors involved. But, as we see, this is the only way we see how to define the magnetic field in a way that facilitates accurate predictions between current and force.